Protein Domain : IPR002011

Type:  Conserved_site Name:  Tyrosine-protein kinase, receptor class II, conserved site
Description:  Protein phosphorylation, which plays a key role in most cellular activities, is a reversible process mediated by protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. Protein kinases catalyse the transfer of the gamma phosphate from nucleotide triphosphates (often ATP) to one or more amino acid residues in a protein substrate side chain, resulting in a conformational change affecting protein function. Phosphoprotein phosphatases catalyse the reverse process. Protein kinases fall into three broad classes, characterised with respect to substrate specificity []:Serine/threonine-protein kinasesTyrosine-protein kinasesDual specificity protein kinases (e.g. MEK - phosphorylates both Thr and Tyr on target proteins)Protein kinase function is evolutionarily conserved from Escherichia coli to human []. Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation []. Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. The catalytic subunits of protein kinases are highly conserved, and several structures have been solved [], leading to large screens to develop kinase-specific inhibitors for the treatments of a number of diseases [].Tyrosine-protein kinases can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine residue in a protein. These enzymes can be divided into two main groups []:Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), which are transmembrane proteins involved in signal transduction; they play key roles in growth, differentiation, metabolism, adhesion, motility, death and oncogenesis []. RTKs are composed of 3 domains: an extracellular domain (binds ligand), a transmembrane (TM) domain, and an intracellular catalytic domain (phosphorylates substrate). The TM domain plays an important role in the dimerisation process necessary for signal transduction []. Cytoplasmic / non-receptor tyrosine kinases, which act as regulatory proteins, playing key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. For example, the Src-family of protein-tyrosine kinases [].A number of growth factors stimulate mitogenesis by interacting with a familyof cell surface receptors which possess an intrinsic, ligand-sensitive,protein tyrosine kinase activity []. These receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK)all share the same topology: an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a singletransmembrane region and a cytoplasmic kinase domain. However they can beclassified into at least five groups. The prototype for class II RTK's is theinsulin receptor, a heterotetramer of two alpha and two beta chains linked bydisulphide bonds. The alpha and beta chainsare cleavage products of aprecursor molecule. The alpha chain contains the ligand binding site, the betachain transverses the membrane and contains the tyrosine protein kinasedomain.While only the insulin and the insulin growth factor I receptors are known toexist in the tetrameric conformation specific to class II RTK's, all the aboveproteins share extensive homologies in their kinase domain, especially aroundthe putative site of autophosphorylation. Short Name:  Tyr_kinase_rcpt_2_CS

0 Child Features

0 Contains

1 Cross References

Identifier
PS00239

9 Found Ins

DB identifier Type Name
IPR000719 Domain Protein kinase domain
IPR011009 Domain Protein kinase-like domain
IPR020635 Domain Tyrosine-protein kinase, catalytic domain
IPR001245 Domain Serine-threonine/tyrosine-protein kinase catalytic domain
IPR016246 Family Tyrosine-protein kinase, insulin-like receptor
IPR020777 Family Tyrosine-protein kinase, neurotrophic receptor
IPR020446 Family Tyrosine-protein kinase, neurotrophic receptor, type 3
IPR020455 Family Tyrosine-protein kinase, neurotrophic receptor, type 2
IPR020461 Family Tyrosine-protein kinase, neurotrophic receptor, type 1

5 GO Annotations

GO Term Gene Name Organism
GO:0004714 IPR002011
GO:0005524 IPR002011
GO:0006468 IPR002011
GO:0007169 IPR002011
GO:0016020 IPR002011

0 Parent Features

0 Proteins

9 Publications

First Author Title Year Journal Volume Pages PubMed ID
            3291115
            12368087
            12471243
            15078142
            15320712
            3052279
            19275641
            16700535
            15845350